Engineering drawing standards

Following the goal of unambiguous communication, engineering drawings are often made professionally and expected to follow certain national and international standards, such as ISO standards. Standardization also aids with internationalization, because people from different countries who speak different languages can share the common language of engineering drawing, and can thus communicate with each other quite well, at least as concerns the geometry of an object.

  1. ISO Standards
  2. ASME Standards
  3. BS Standards
  4. DIN Standards
  5. JIS Standards

ISO Standards

ISO symbol
ISO symbol

Standardization is a dynamic and continuous process. The standards follow the development in engineering.

ISO 128 is an international standard (ISO), about the general principles of presentation in technical drawings, specifically the graphical representation of objects on technical drawings.

ISO 1101 represents the initial basis and describes the required fundamentals for geometrical tolerancing. Nevertheless, it is advisable to consult the separate standards referenced in Clause 2 and in Table 2 for more

Mechanical engineering drawings

  • ISO 128 Technical drawings—General principles of presentation
  • ISO 129 Technical drawings -- Indication of dimensions and tolerances
  • ISO 1101 Geometrical tolerancing
  • ISO 1302 Indication of surface texture in technical product documentation
  • ISO 1660 Geometrical tolerancing -- Profile tolerancing
  • ISO 2162 Technical product documentation -- Springs
  • ISO 2203 Technical drawings -- Conventional representation of gears
  • ISO 2553 Symbolic representation on drawings -- Welded joints
  • ISO 2692 Geometrical tolerancing -- Maximum material requirement (MMR), least material requirement (LMR) and reciprocity requirement (RPR)
  • ISO 3040 Dimensioning and tolerancing -- Cones
  • ISO 5261 Technical drawings -- Simplified representation of bars and profile sections
  • ISO 5459 Geometrical tolerancing -- Datums and datum systems
  • ISO 5845 Technical drawings -- Simplified representation of the assembly of parts with fasteners -- Part 1: General principles
  • ISO 6410 Technical drawings -- Screw threads and threaded parts
  • ISO 6411 Technical drawings -- Simplified representation of centre holes
  • ISO 6413 Technical drawings -- Representation of splines and serrations
  • ISO 7083 Technical drawings -- Symbols for geometrical tolerancing -- Proportions and dimensions
  • ISO 8015 Geometrical product specifications (GPS) -- Fundamentals -- Concepts, principles and rules
  • ISO 8826 Technical drawings -- Rolling bearings
  • ISO 9222 Technical drawings -- Seals for dynamic application
  • ISO 10110 Optics and photonics -- Preparation of drawings for optical elements and systems
  • ISO 10135 Drawing indications for moulded parts in technical product documentation (TPD)
  • ISO 10579 Dimensioning and tolerancing -- Non-rigid parts
  • ISO 13444 Technical product documentation (TPD) -- Dimensioning and indication of knurling
  • ISO 13715 Technical drawings -- Edges of undefined shape -- Vocabulary and indications
  • ISO Technical product documentation -- Edges of undefined shape -- Indication and dimensioning
  • ISO 14660-2 Geometrical features -- Extracted median line of a cylinder and a cone, extracted median surface, local size of an extracted feature
  • ISO 15785 Technical drawings -- Symbolic presentation and indication of adhesive, fold and pressed joints
  • ISO 15786 Technical drawings -- Simplified representation and dimensioning of holes
  • ISO 15787 Technical product documentation -- Heat-treated ferrous parts -- Presentation and indications
  • ISO/DIS 15787
  • Technical product documentation -- Heat-treated ferrous parts -- Presentation and indications
  • ISO 16249 Springs -- Symbols
  • ISO 17599 Technical product documentation (TPD) -- General requirements of digital mock-up for mechanical products
  • ISO 18388 Technical product documentation (TPD) -- Relief grooves -- Types and dimensioning
  • ISO 216 paper sizes, e.g. the A4 paper size
  • ISO 406:1987 Technical drawings—Tolerancing of linear and angular dimensions
  • ISO 1660:1987 Technical drawings—Dimensioning and tolerancing of profiles
  • ISO 2203:1973 Technical drawings—Conventional representation of gears
  • ISO 3040:1990 Technical drawings—Dimensioning and tolerancing -- Cones
  • ISO 3098/1:1974 Technical Drawing - Lettering - Part I: Currently Used Characters
  • ISO 4172:1991 Technical drawings -- Construction drawings -- Drawings for the assembly of prefabricated structures
  • ISO 5261:1995 Technical drawings—Simplified representation of bars and profile sections
  • ISO 5455:1979 Technical drawings—Scales
  • ISO 5456 Technical drawings -- Projection methods
  • ISO 5457:1999 Technical product documentation -- Sizes and layout of drawing sheets
  • ISO 5459:1981 Technical drawings -- Geometrical tolerancing -- Datums and datum-systems for geometrical tolerances
  • ISO 5845-1:1995 Technical drawings—Simplified representation of the assembly of parts with fasteners—Part 1: General principles
  • ISO 6410-1:1993 Technical drawings—Screw threads and threaded parts—Part 1: General conventions
  • ISO 6411:1982 Technical drawings—Simplified representation of centre holes
  • ISO 6412-1:1989 Technical drawings—Simplified representation of pipelines -- Part 1: General rules and orthogonal representation
  • ISO 6413:1988 Technical drawings—Representation of splines and serrations
  • ISO 6414:1982 Technical drawings for glassware
  • ISO 6428:1982 Technical drawings—Requirements for microcopying
  • ISO 6433:1981 Technical drawings -- Item references
  • ISO 7200:2004 Technical drawings — Title blocks
  • ISO 7083:1983 Technical drawings—Symbols for geometrical tolerancing -- Proportions and dimensions
  • ISO 7437:1990 Technical drawings -- Construction drawings -- General rules for execution of production drawings for prefabricated structural components
  • ISO 7518:1983 Technical drawings -- Construction drawings -- Simplified representation of demolition and rebuilding
  • ISO 7519:1991 Technical drawings -- Construction drawings -- General principles of presentation for general arrangement and assembly drawings
  • ISO 8015:1985 Technical drawings—Fundamental tolerancing principle
  • ISO 8048:1984 Technical drawings -- Construction drawings -- Representation of views, sections and cuts
  • ISO 8560:1986 Technical drawings -- Construction drawings -- Representation of modular sizes, lines and grids
  • ISO 8560:1986 Technical drawings—Construction drawings—Representation of modular sizes, lines and grids
  • ISO 8826-1:1989 Technical drawings—Rolling bearings—Part 1: General simplified representation
  • ISO 8826-2:1994 Technical drawings—Rolling bearings—Part 2: Detailed simplified representation
  • ISO 9222-1:1989 Technical drawings—Seals for dynamic application—Part 1: General simplified representation
  • ISO 9222-2:1989 Technical drawings—Seals for dynamic application—Part 2: Detailed simplified representation
  • ISO 9958-1:1992 Draughting media for technical drawings—Draughting film with polyester base—Part 1: Requirements and marking
  • ISO 9961:1992 Draughting media for technical drawings—Natural tracing paper
  • ISO 10209-1:1992 Technical product documentation—Vocabulary—Part 1: Terms relating to technical drawings: general and types of drawings
  • ISO 10578:1992 Technical drawings—Tolerancing of orientation and location—Projected tolerance zone
  • ISO 10579:1993 Technical drawings—Dimensioning and tolerancing—Non-rigid parts
  • ISO 13567 is an international Computer-aided design (CAD) layer standard.
  • ISO 13715:2000 Technical drawings—Edges of undefined shape—Vocabulary and indications
  • ISO 15786:2008 Technical drawings—Simplified representation and dimensioning of holes

ASME Standards

ASME symbol
ASME symbol

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) was founded in 1880 in response to numerous steam boiler pressure vessel failures. ASME focused on mechanical engineering and sponsors the development of the Y14 series of standards. The standards in the series cover most facets of engineering drawings and related documents.

The following are basic Y14 standards:

  • ASME Y14.1- Drawing sheet size and format
  • ASME Y14.1M- Metric sheet size and format
  • ASME Y14.2- Line conventions and lettering
  • ASME Y14.3- Multi-view and sectional view drawings
  • ASME Y14.4- Pictorial drawings
  • ASME Y14.5- Dimensioning and Tolerancing
  • ASME Y14.24- Types and applications of Engineering drawings
  • ASME Y14.34- Associated lists
  • ASME Y14.35- Drawing revisions
  • ASME Y14.38- Abbreviations
  • ASME Y14.41- Digital product definition drawing practices
  • ASME Y14.42- Electronic approval systems
  • ASME Y14.38- Abbreviations
  • ASME Y14.38- Abbreviations
  • ASME Y14.100- Engineering drawing and practices

The following are specialty Y14 standards:

  • ASME Y14.6- Screw threads
  • ASME Y14.7- Gears and Splines
  • ASME Y14.8- Casting and Forgings
  • ASME Y14.13- Springs
  • ASME Y14.18- Drawings for optical parts
  • ASME Y14.31- Undimensioned drawings
  • ASME Y14.32- Ground Vehicle drawing practices
  • ASME Y14.36- Surface texture symbols
  • ASME Y14.37- Composite part drawings
  • ASME Y14.40- Graphic symbols
  • ASME Y14.43- Dimensioning and tolerancing of functional gages
  • ASME Y14.44- Reference designations

The ANSI administers the guidelines for standards creation in the United States.

BS Standards

BS symbol
BS symbol

British Standards began in 1901 as the Engineering Standards Committee, led by James Mansergh, to standardise the number and type of steel sections, in order to make British manufacturers more efficient and competitive.

BS 308 was formally the standard for engineering drawing since 1927. The first British Standard for Engineering Drawing Office Practice published in September 1927 only contained 14 clauses. The BSI Group, who produced the standard, played an important role in the development of the international standard on technical specification in conjunction with the ISO. In 2000, the BS 308 was replaced by the updated BS 8888.

BS 8888 is the British standard developed by the BSI Group for technical product documentation, geometric product specification, geometric tolerance specification and engineering drawings.

A significant change in the 2013 revision is that there is no longer a requirement to state whether specifications have been toleranced in accordance with either the Principle of Independency or the Principle of Dependency.

DIN Standards

DIN symbol
DIN symbol

DIN standards are issued by Deutsches Institut für Normung. DIN standards are sent to the European Union and adopted as EN standards.

DIN standard 5 used to cover isometric projections on drawings, but this has been replaced by ISO standard 5456. DIN standard 6 used to cover how normal views of drawings would be laid out, but this is now covered by ISO standard 128.

DIN standard 406 still gives the recommended practices for engineering drawings such as how dimensions and tolerances are to be called out.

JIS Standards

JIS symbol
JIS symbol

The present Japanese Standards Association was established after Japan's defeat in World War II in 1949.

The Industrial Standardization Law was revised in 2004 and the "JIS mark" (product certification system) was changed; since 2005, the new JIS mark has been applied upon re-certification.

Japan has been further promoting consistency with international standards in order to respond to demands in and outside the country.

Total JIS 10,399 standards
Number of JIS with corresponding international standards 5,725 standards
JIS identical to international standards 40%
JIS modified from international standards 57%
JIS not-equivalent to international standards 3%
Consistency between JIS and ISO as of the end of March 2013

JIS classification and numbering

Standards are named like "JIS X 0208:1997", where X denotes area division, followed by four digits (or five digits for some of the standards corresponding ISO standards), and the revision release year. Divisions of JIS and significant standards are:

  • A – Civil Engineering and Architecture
  • B – Mechanical Engineering
    • JIS B 0001-2010 – Technical drawing for mechanical engineering
    • JIS B 7021-1989 – Classification and Water Resistibility of Water Resistant Watches for General Use
    • JIS B 7512-1993 – Steel tape measures
    • JIS B 7516-1987 – Metal Rules
  • C – Electronic and Electrical Engineering
  • D – Automotive Engineering
  • E – Railway Engineering
  • F – Ship building
  • G – Ferrous Materials and Metallurgy
  • H – Nonferrous materials and metallurgy
    • JIS H 3100 – Copper and copper alloy sheets, plates and strips
    • JIS H 3110 – Phosphor bronze and nickel silver sheets, plates and strips
    • JIS H 3250 – Copper and copper alloy rods and bars
    • JIS H 4040 – Aluminium and aluminium alloy rods, bars and wires
  • K – Chemical Engineering
  • L – Textile Engineering
  • M – Mining
  • P – Pulp and Paper
  • Q – Management System
  • S – Domestic Wares
  • T – Medical Equipment and Safety Appliances
  • W – Aircraft and Aviation
  • X – Information Processing
  • Z – Miscellaneous

  • References:
    • Paul J. Drake, Jr. Dimensioning and Tolerancing Handbook
    • Wikipedia